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Sometimes. If officers are chasing someone who just committed a serious crime, they can go in after him/her - it's fresh pursuit, while a crime is happening.
If there is a good reason to believe someone is in a house, officers can force entry to arrest someone if their delay would allow escape or destruction of evidence. Entry can also be forced to save lives or rescue kidnap victims, where a delay could result in injury or death.
With an arrest warrant, officers can go into a person's house to get them if there is a reason to believe that the person is there. If there is a reason to believe a serious crime is in progress, officers can go in using necessary force in order to investigate and arrest the suspect. If there is no clear urgency to act immediately, officers need to get an arrest and/or a search warrant. If the police have a lawful right to enter and demand entry, you can be arrested for obstruction if you refuse or deny entry in any way.
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A pat-search for weapons can be made anytime an officer suspects a person might have one, and consent for that is not needed. Individuals on probation or parole may have a search clause, which means they agreed to be searched at any time for the privilege of not being in custody. Search warrants can be obtained by a person. Officers can always search a person if consent is given.
Yes. Anytime someone is detained, an officer can handcuff them for mutual protection if it is believed to be necessary.
For an adult, there is no requirement to advise you of your Miranda rights unless you are in custody and we want to question you about the crime. However, if you are being arrested for a traffic warrant, you may never be advised of your rights. For the same reason, if you are questioned in your home and you are not in custody, advisement of rights is not an issue.